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The Republic of Australia(also referred to as Australia) is a sovereign nation located in the Southern Hemisphere. Its territory includes the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It has no land borders and the nearest country is New Zealand which is to the South-East. The area of Australia is 7,617,930 km2 and the population is just over 24 million.
The Republic of Australia was officially formed on the 5th July 2006 after the British-Australian War which saw its relationship with the commonwealth crumble. On the 4th July 2006 a referendum on becoming a republic was passed and the next day a constitution was established.
Australia is a well respected country and is highly developed. It ranks high among the quality of life index and many other global comparisons of national performance.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 2.1 British-Australian War
- 2.2 Foundation
- 2.3 2007 Northern Territory Storms
- 2.4 2008 Presidential elections
- 2.5 Surge in Piracy
- 2.6 2011 X-Games
- 2.7 2011 Presidential elections
- 2.8 Withdrawal from the United Nations
- 3 Geography, Climate and Environment
- 4 Government and Elections
- 5 Foreign Relations
- 6 Military
- 7 Law Enforcement
- 8 Economy
- 9 Culture
The name Australia comes from the Latin word Australis which means "Southern".
- Main article: British-Australian War
The British-Australian war was the name given to a war between Australia and New Zealand against Great Britain. That war started on the 3rd June 2006 and ended on the 2nd July 2006. The cause of the war was a piece of disputed land in the Antarctica. After increased tensions over the land, an Australian warship fired two SOM missiles at a British ship that was getting dangerously close to it. This caused outrage in Britain as 7 members of the British navy were killed in the scuffle. British Prime Minister David Blake saw this as an act of war and declared war on Australia.
The first action of the war was by the British in Tasmania and resulted in Britain capturing Tasmania although there was no casualties on either sides. 48 hours later, Britain invaded Perth. The attack was successful as the Australian forces were forced to retreat to the town of York which was the scene of the second battle. Determined to keep their momentum going, the British soldiers attacked York but they found that the Australian defense lines were very strong. However, they eventually captured York pushing the Australians out of the Western territory. With the Australians of out the Western territory, the British focused on the capital Sydney. Knowing that the ground forces would not be able to reach Sydney, David Blake ordered the air force to bomb Sydney, a bombing that killed over 1000 innocent civilians. This caused controversy on an international scale and Australian Prime minister James Jones promised to bring Blake to an Australian court to face justice. As the war progressed, Darwin was the next to be attacked by British forces although this time the Australians were better prepared. It was a fierce battle with both sides taking heavy casualties but the Australians eventually came out on top pushing the British back into Western Australia. Many saw this as the turning point in the war considering the British morale was low. Operation Offensive was the codename given to an Australian attack against the British. The offensive lasted 3 days and was a success for the Australians who pushed the British back into Perth. The British forces had stopped receiving reinforcements and the supplies were low. Only 6000 British soldiers were in Perth during the Second Battle of Perth which ultimately ended the war after the Australians defeated the British. After the war, British prime minister David Blake abdicated and fled from Britain. After this, a referendum on becoming a Republic was proposed and passed. A new constitution was declared on the 5th July 2006.
After the new constitution was passed, President James Jones(followed on from the role of Prime Minister) announced his Vice President, Cody Walker and other senior officials within the country and that the interim capital was Adelaide. The first elections for congress took place on the 14th July 2006 and with the new country in order, it was time to rebuild from the recent war. Many places like Brisbane and Melbourne were untouched from the war although Sydney and Perth were the worst hit. This was when President Jones and his advisers announced that the permanent capital city would be Melbourne. Despite being newly formed, the recent war took its toll on the country and Jones declared an economic crisis. In an attempt to resolve the situation, Jones figured that they would need a substantial amount of money to kickstart the economy again. 27 days after taking up the role of Presidency, Jones made his first overseas visit to New Zealand. The visit was a success and the two Heads of States announced that New Zealand had loaned Australia a substantial amount of which could be the key to kick starting the economy. With hyper-inflation on the rise, Jones introduced a new currency, the Australian pound(AUP) and a new national bank. Jones policies showed to have great effect. By the new year the economic situation had improved drastically. Many people begun building new houses and setting up new businesses. The mortgage rate increased and many people enjoyed financial comfort. 1 year on from the war, a national holiday was declared and many Australians partied in the street to celebrate their independence. This became known as the Aussie day.
2007 Northern Territory Storms
The 2007 Northern Territory Storm were a series of storms that struck the Northern Territory and small parts of Western Australia on the 7 and 8 November 2007. The estimated damage bill was at £700 million. The storms resulted in heavy rain, strong winds, flash flooding and extensive damage to vehicles and property. At the peak of the storm, the winds reached 100 kilometers. The severe winds left about 120,000 homes without electricity and telephone lines were cut. By the 8th November, the peak of the storm had passed and the cleanup process had begun in parts that the storm had passed. In the aftermath of the storm, 34 people had too be treated for injuries related to the storm although there was no fatalities. About 7000 insurance claims were made in the 48 hours after the storms.
2008 Presidential elections
The next Presidential elections were not scheduled until July 2009 but it was decided that the elections would take place in July 2008 because President Jones was diagnosed with a rare form of cancer and was given only 6 months to live. He remained on as President until being elected out of the office. There was initially 3 presidential candidates, Callum Trott, Max Taylor and Daniel Lee Harris but due to lack of public support Max Taylor pulled out 2 weeks into the campaign. This left Daniel Lee Harris and Callum Trott. Both men led successful election campaigns and it was too close to call coming into final days. The election took place on the 21st July and the voting was opened for 14 hours. After the counting of the votes were finished, the results were released showing a slight victory for Harris with 52.3% of the votes. Harris was inaugurated as the 2nd President in Melbourne on the 24th July 2008. James Jones died just 3 weeks later.
Surge in Piracy
Early 2009 saw an increase in piracy in the Tasman and Timor sea. Pirates who operated out of Indonesia, targeted busy shipping lanes and hijacked ships for ransom often killing some on board. After being urged by shipping companies to tackle the problem, President Harris and the New Zealand head of state Casper Vickers met in Melbourne to discuss the problem. It was then announced that the two countries would conduct a joint naval operation over a period of 18 months to reduce the problem. The operation, which involved dozens of naval ships began in early 2009 and ended in mid 2010. It resulted in the arrest and imprisonment of 700 pirates. Piracy in the area has since decreased.
In the summer of 2011, Australia hosted the X-Games, an annual sports event. The event was held in the capital Melbourne although some events took place in nearby towns and cities. The opening ceremony took place on the 5th January and the closing ceremony took place 6 days later. The event which included sports like skateboarding and moto was considered a success as the Australians finished 2nd on the medals chart winning 23 medals in total. Revenue from tourists who attended the games increased the profit already made taking to total to £1.2 Billion.
2011 Presidential elections
The 2011 Presidential elections took place in July 2011. There were 4 candidates running for Presidency, Ashton Parker, Loren Kelly, Dexter Smith and incumbent Daniel Lee Harris who was running for his second term. The election took place on the 21st July and the voting was opened for 18 hours. After the counting of the votes were finished, Harris received 43% of the votes and remained as President.
Withdrawal from the United Nations
The Republic of Australia withdrew from the United Nations on the 1st January 2012. The general public in Australia blasted Harris and the government on this decision as many felt Harris waited until after the recent presidential elections to withdraw because he knew that it would not be a popular decision. The Foreign affairs minister Austin Devine defended Harris on the decision and claimed the United Nations was futile and disorganized since the dissolution of the United Stated of America.
Capture of David Blake
After several sightings of David Blake in Napa City, the Bowasian government and Australian government created a joint task force tasked with capturing Blake. The task force eventually tracked Blake and 3 other associates to an apartment building in Napa City. The building was raided on the 16th September and Blake along with his 3 associates were arrested ending a 6 year manhunt. The apartment contained weapons and a homemade bomb. Documents in the apartment revealed that after fleeing the UK, Blake traveled to Ireland, Chile, JBR before settling down in Bowasia 3 months before his capture. Blake was transported the Melbourne to face trial. He was subsequently sentenced to life in prison.
Australian-Midwayan whaling conflict
Geography, Climate and Environment
The Republic of Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 km2 and is situated on the Indo-Australian plate. It is surrounded by the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. Australia is the 6th largest country by area and it has 34,218 kilometres of coastline. Mount Kosciuszko is the largest mountain in the country standing at 7,310 ft. This mountain is a popular tourist destination throughout the year. The landscapes and terrain of the country consist of woodland, grassland and desert. There are numerous islands off the coast off Bekolan, many of which are uninhabited.
The warm climate of Australia is significantly influenced by ocean currents, including the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean. The average temperature all year round is about 28-33 degrees but rises a little bit during the summer
Government and Elections
The government is separated into three branches:
- The Legislature
- The Executive
- The Judiciary
The Congress consists of a group of politicians elected by the people who serve with the intention of improving the countries welfare. Currently there is 150 congressmen. To pass a bill, a congressman must first introduce the bill to the other members of the congress before a discussion takes place for a few days. After this, voting takes place and if it receives a majority vote, it is then up to the President to sign the bill into law. However, if the President decides to reject the bill, it is sent back to the congress with a reason why it was rejected. If two-thirds of the congress concur, the congress can override the decision bringing it into law. The current speaker of Congress is Marcus Kelly.
The nations is a Republic and has been since it was formed in 2006. The President is the Head of State, Government and Military and is elected every 3 years. The President can have up to 4 terms in the office. As a representative of the people, the President only has limited power but the powers that he does have are important and defines the nation.
The job of the Supreme Court is to settle disputes by determining the meaning of laws and making sure everything is in accord with the constitution.
The Republic of Australia maintains excellent relations with New Zealand and other nearby countries such as Malaysia and Singapore. Australia also holds good relations with most member states of the Sunshine Treaty Organization Pact and the Pacific Island Forum. However, since the British-Australian War, Australia is yet to conduct formal relations with the United Kingdom.
The Armed Forces of Australia consists of the Army, Navy, Air Force and Special Forces. It is a strong and well equipped force with 98,235 full time personnel. The President is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces and appoints the Supreme Commander. The Armed Forces in managed by the Department of Defense. The Department of Defense is responsible for preserving peace and security in Australia and abroad.
The Australian Police is the Police force of the Republic of Australia. The force is headed by the Commissioner who is appointed by the President. The current Police Commissioner is Riley Daly. The current number of sworn officers is 75,73. The Australian Police are responsible for all aspects of policing in Australia.
The Republic of Australia is a very wealthy country with a low rate of poverty. In terms of GDP per capita, Australia is one of the wealthiest countries in the world. The unemployment rate is 3.5 per cent. The Australian Pound(AUP) is the adopted currency of the country. Bank notes in Australia are issued in denominations of £100, £50, £20, £10 and £5. Coins are issued in denominations of £2, £1, £0.50, £0.25, £0.10, £0.05, £0.02 and £0.01
Although Australia has no official language, the de facto language is widely accepted as English. Other spoken languages include Italian, Arabic, Greek and French.
Australia has no official religion. In the 2007 census, 71.1 per cent of Australians were counted as Christian, including 35.6 per cent as Roman Catholic and 12.4 per cent as Anglican. 22% of the population stated "no religion".
Education in Australia starts at 4 years of age as the pupil will begin pre-school for one year before moving on to Primary school until the age of 12. The pupil will then go on to Secondary school until the age of 17. After this, he/she can attempt to get employed in a job or move on to further education such as university.
Many Australians participate in all different sports such as soccer, rugby, tennis, cricket and swimming. The most popular sport is soccer which draws in an average attendance of 45,000 for every professional match in the country. Surfing and water related sports are very popular sport for those who live within 50 miles from the ocean.